Cosmetic Surgery Makeovers
Cosmetic surgery, also known as Plastic surgery, is an ancient practice. In the 8th century BC, the Indian surgeon Sushruta Samhita described what is known today as rhinoplasty (surgery to the nose) and otoplasty (to the ear). Body alteration more generally has been carried out by all peoples, from tribal tattoos to the neck-extending Kayans of Thailand.
But modern medicine has made the possibilities of cosmetic surgery far more extensive. Anaesthesia has made procedures less unpleasant and less dangerous. Consequently, cosmetic surgery has become increasingly popular. In 1948, fewer than 300 board-certified plastic surgeons were in practice in the USA; today the number is more than 4,000. Television shows and newspaper supplements are now devoted to cosmetic surgery and makeover programmes advocate it.
Today more and more parts of the body can be “improved.” Once the possibilities for surgery were relatively restricted, now almost anything can be the subject of cosmetic surgery. To name but a few, common operations include abdominoplasty (a qurnmy tuck” or reshaping/firming of the abdomen), blepharoplasty (eyelid surgery), buttock implants/reductions, chemical “peels” (removal of acne scars and sagging skin), chin and cheek augmentation, lipectomy (or liposuction — removal of fat from the body), and rhytidectomy (face lift) Among the most popular procedures are the otoplasty and rhinoplasty mentioned earlier, and finally and most common, surgery for the breasts: both mammaplasty (breast enlargement/reduction) and mastoplexy (breast lift) — collectively known as “boob jobs.”
Cosmetic surgery is today carried out purely to improve appearance, and does not address plastic surgery for medical reasons, for example post-disfigurement reconstruction or remedial surgery. This type of surgery is no more restricted to the famous people from the glamour industry; it is being commonly used by any one who wants a ‘beautiful self.