What are The Spores?
A plant having flowers gives birth to a new plant by means of a seed. On the other hand, plants-which do not have flowers make a new plant by means of a spore.
In fact, spore is one-celled organism. It is not visible to us but it can only be seen with the help of microscope (scientific instrument). There are spores in the atmosphere all around us, so, that is why when food is left exposed and molds and mildews form on it, we know from where they have come. Actually certain types of spores that were in the atmosphere settled on the food and ultimately began to grow.
There are certain types of plants that reproduce by means of spores e.g. mushrooms, ferns, mosses etc. The algae also produce spores although it lives in water.
A plant carries its spores in cases which are known as sporangia. In case of mushroom, the sporangium is inside the gills beneath the Mushroom cap. The spores are carried in a capsule at the top of the stalk in the case of mosses.
As and when the spore is at the ripe stage, it opens, thereafter the ripe spores are released. In fact, they are finer than dust, and are scattered far and wide with the help of wind. In respect of water plants e.g. algae, the spores start swimming in the water. They have small tails known as Cilia. Such spores are named as zoo spores, and when the ripe case opens, the zoo spores start swimming away fastly. After a gap of some time they come to rest and lose their tails. Hence, they start to grow and ultimately take the shape of new plants.
Some of the spores reproduce by cell division. Such spores grow by pushing out a germ tube through a thin place in the cell wall. The germ tube branches into a mass of threads out of which the new plant grows. This is generally known as a sexual reproduction. Some other types of spores are specialized male and female. One male and one female cell must join to form a fertilized egg in order to start a new plant.